Professor Dishan Kamdar, Senior Associate Dean- Academic Programmes at the ISB has widely published in top tier journals. He has presented papers at a number of premiere conferences including the Academy of Management Conference (AOM), Society for Industrial and Organisational Psychology Conference (SIOP), the American Psychological Association (APA), the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) and the International Congress of Applied Psychology (ICAP). He has also co-authored a book chapter in a Handbook on Organisational Citizenship Behaviour titled ‘A review of Good Soldier Activity in Organisations.
We propose a theoretical process model of the social construction of leadership that sheds light on the relationship between conscientiousness and leadership emergence. The socioanalytic theory of personality is invoked to hypothesize different mediational paths linking the two facets of conscientiousness, achievement striving and duty, with leadership emergence. We tested the theoretical model with data from 249 employees matched with data from 40 of their coworkers and 40 supervisors employed in a Fortune 500 organization. Results indicate that the relationship between achievement striving and leadership emergence is partially mediated by competitiveness, providing support for a getting-ahead path to leadership. In contrast, the relationship between duty and leadership emergence is, in part, carried forward by trust, helping role perceptions, and helping behavior, supporting a getting-along path to leadership. Consistent with the self versus other distinction theoretically posited with regard to the facets of conscientiousness, although helping behavior is a predictor of leadership emergence, achievement strivers help only when they perceive helping as being an in-role requirement, whereas dutiful individuals enlarge their helping role perceptions.
Despite a growing body of research on employee voice—defined as the discretionary communication of ideas,
suggestions, or opinions intended to improve organizational or unit functioning—the effects of shared or
collective-level cognitions have received scant attention. There has also been relatively little research on voice
within work groups. Our goal in this study was to address these important gaps by focusing on the effects of
group-level beliefs about voice (i.e., group voice climate) on individual voice behavior within work groups.
We conducted a cross-level investigation of voice behavior within 42 groups of engineers from a large
chemical company. Consistent with our hypotheses, group voice climate was highly predictive of voice and
explained variance beyond the effects of individual-level identification and satisfaction, and procedural justice
climate. Also consistent with predictions, the effect of identification on voice was stronger in groups with
favorable voice climates. These findings provide evidence that voice is shaped not just by individual attitudes
and perceptions of the work context, as past research has shown, but also by group-level beliefs. The results also highlight the importance of broadening our conceptual models of voice to include shared cognitions and of conducting additional cross-level research on voice.
Drawing on and extending prototype theories of creativity and leadership, we theorize that the expression of creative ideas may diminish judgments of leadership potential unless the charismatic leadership prototype is activated in the minds of social perceivers. Study 1 shows creative idea expression is negatively related to perceptions of leadership potential in a sample of employees working in jobs that required creative problem solving. Study 2 shows that participants randomly instructed to express creative solutions during an interaction are viewed as having lower leadership potential. A third scenario study replicated this finding showing that participants attributed less leadership potential to targets expressing creative ideas, except when the “charismatic” leader prototype was activated. In sum, we show that the negative association between expressing creative ideas and leadership potential is robust and underscores an important but previously unidentified bias against selecting effective leaders.
Research has not explored the extent to which seeking help from teammates positively relates to a person’s own creativity. This question is important to explore as help seeking is commonly enacted in organizations and may come with reciprocation costs that may also diminish creative performance. Results based on 291 employees in a single division of a large multi-national organization revealed that seeking help predicted creativity and mediated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and creativity. However, help seekers also incurred reciprocation costs in that they tended to give more help to teammates, but giving help to teammates was negatively related to creativity. In general giving higher levels of help attenuated the positive relationship between help seeking and creativity. We also test an integrated model to show that help giving moderated the mediated relationship between intrinsic motivation and creativity via help seeking, higher levels of help giving attenuated this mediated effect. We discuss theoretical and practical implications recommending additional research regarding the interpersonal creative process in team contexts.
Three studies contrasting Indian and American negotiators tested hypotheses derived from theory proposing why there are cultural differences in trust and how cultural differences in trust influence negotiation strategy. Study 1 (a survey) documented that Indian negotiators trust their counterparts less than American negotiators. Study 2 (a negotiation simulation) linked American and Indian negotiators’
self-reported trust and strategy to their insight and joint gains. Study 3 replicated and extended Study 2 using independently coded negotiation strategy data, allowing for stronger causal inference. Overall, the strategy associated with Indian negotiators’ reluctance to extend interpersonal (as opposed to institutional)
trust produced relatively poor outcomes. Our data support an expanded theoretical model of
negotiation, linking culture to trust, strategies, and outcomes.
In 2 field studies, we demonstrated that the relationship between leader–member exchange (LMX) and
organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is moderated by employee role perceptions—the extent to which employees view specific types of OCB as in-role behavior (IRB) versus extra-role behavior (ERB). In addition, we predicted and demonstrated that the form of these interactions differs on the basis of the
type of OCB. For helping (aimed at the supervisor or the organization), results show a substitute effect in which viewing helping as IRB buffers the negative effect of low-quality LMX on helping. In contrast, for voice (aimed at the supervisor or the organization), results demonstrate an enhancer effect in which viewing voice as IRB amplifies the positive effect of high-quality LMX on voice. We discuss theoretical and practical implications with an emphasis on how conceptual differences in types of OCB influence the interactive effects of role perceptions on LMX–OCB relationships.
The present research takes an “other-centered” approach to examining personal and contextual antecedents
of taking charge behavior in organizations. Largely consistent with the authors’ hypotheses, regression analyses involving data collected from 2 diverse samples containing both coworkers and supervisors demonstrated that the other-centered trait, duty, was positively related to taking charge,
whereas the self-centered trait, achievement striving, was negatively related to taking charge. In addition, the authors found that procedural justice at the organizational level was positively related to taking charge when evaluated by a coworker, while both procedural and distributive justice were positively related to taking charge when considered by a supervisor. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
The objective of this study was to empirically disentangle role perceptions related to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) that have been confounded in past research, investigate their unique relationships with both an affiliative (helping) and a challenging (taking charge) form of OCB, and determine their relative importance in explaining these 2 forms of OCB. The authors also examined whether role discretion and role breadth independently moderate the procedural justice-to-OCB relationship. The authors surveyed 225 engineers in India and their direct supervisors. The results showed that 3 of the 4 facets of OCB role perception explain unique variance in either helping or taking charge, and that role breadth moderates the relationships between procedural justice and both helping and taking charge. The authors discuss implications of these findings for OCB theory and research, as well as for managerial practice.
This field study examines the joint effects of social exchange relationships at work (LMX:
leader-member exchange and TMX: team-member exchange) and employee personality
(conscientiousness and agreeableness) in predicting task performance and citizenship
performance. Consistent with Trait Activation Theory, matched data on 230 employees, their
coworkers and their supervisors demonstrated interactions where high quality social exchange
relationships weakened the positive relationships between personality and performance. Results
demonstrate the benefits of consonant predictions where predictors and outcomes are matched based on specific targets. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.
The authors draw on theories of social exchange and prosocial behavior to explain how employee
perceptions of procedural justice and individual differences in reciprocation wariness, empathic concern, and perspective taking function jointly as determinants of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) role definitions and behavior. As hypothesized, empirical findings from a field study show both direct and interactive effects of procedural justice perceptions and individual differences on OCB role definition. In
turn, OCB role definitions not only predict OCB directly but also moderate the effects of procedural justice perceptions on OCB. The authors explore the implications of these findings for practice as well as research.
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