- In The Media
Arun Pereira is Clinical Associate Professor of Management Education, and Executive Director, Centre for Teaching Learning and Case Development (CTLC) at the ISB. Prior to joining the ISB, he was tenured Associate Professor of Marketing at Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, where he spent 18 years teaching analytical marketing, marketing research, and new product management. Professor Pereira has designed and taught executive training programmes/classes for various Fortune 500 companies, and is an External Faculty at McKinsey & Co.
China is rapidly becoming an important market for consumer goods, but relatively little is known about variations in consumer shopping patterns in different regions of China. We employ a cultural materialism perspective in understanding decision-making styles of inland and coastal shoppers. Our findings reveal that consumers in the two regional markets do not differ in utilitarian shopping styles but they do in hedonic
shopping styles. Marketers need to understand these differences to be able to market effectively to consumers in different regional markets within China.
The U.S. Hispanic online market consists of the most affluent and educated members of the U.S. Hispanic population. The segment is large, increasing in size, and its members prefer culturally-adapted marketing messages. Currently, no frameworks are available to help marketers culturally customize websites for U.S. Hispanics. The objective of this study is to address this gap. The goals are to identify the ways in which Hispanic preferences for web design elements differ, and to explore how these preferences vary based on acculturation. The results indicate that Hispanics have culturally-rooted preferences for web content and that acculturation levels are important segmentation variables.
By proposing a conceptual outline for a general model that explains the internationalization–performance link, we test the moderating effects of organizational learning on the relationship between internationalization and performance empirically. Integrating two distinct literature streams from the organizational learning perspective and the resource-based view, we present an integrated, multidimensional framework for analyzing multinational enterprises’ (MNEs’) resources, internationalization, and organizational learning, as well as their associated impact on firm performance. Specifically, using a sample of 110 American MNEs, we find that while certain MNE resources motivate and precede internationalization, social and market learning (whereas technological learning does not) moderates the relationship between internationalization and performance. These findings extend prior research by establishing the importance of the relationships among MNE resources, internationalization, organizational
learning, and firm performance.
The importance of country-of-origin as a cue in consumer choice behavior is well established in the international business literature. However, little research has been done in conceptualizing and measuring the specific construct of country-of-origin. This research attempts to show that country-of-origin is rooted in the construct of ‘‘country-image’’ and makes a case for the measurement of the broad construct of country-of-origin image (COI). We test and revise an existing scale of COI and attempt to validate it with data from China, Taiwan, and India.
According to the recent 2000 U.S. Census, the ethnic population in America reached almost 80 million people. However, there is limited research to show how ethnic consumers seek market information and how susceptible they are to different types of personal and media influences. An attempt is made in this study to present a cross-cultural comparison of ethnic consumer socialization influences. The results of the study indicate that Asian American, Hispanic, and African American young adults significantly differ in their susceptibility to different socialization influences.
This research focuses on the popular measure of ethnocentrism, CETSCALE and attempts to validate the multi-item scale in China, India, and Taiwan. LISREL is utilized to test the unidimensionalityof the scale and multiple tests are used to analyze the internal consistency
reliability of the scale in these countries. Further, given the cultural differences between China, India, and Taiwan, this research hypothesizes and tests for differences in ethnocentrism among consumers of these countries. The results provide useful insights for academic researchers as well as managers of multinational companies who are
involved in these countries or have plans to enter them.
An experimental design is used to examine the effect of products' country of origin on first-mover advantage. Specifically, focuses on the effects of favorable/unfavorable country-of-origin on first-mover advantage, as well as its effects with regard to "early followers'' and "late followers''. The results have direct implications for products entering international markets as a first mover, "early'' follower, or "late'' follower. Results indicate that with increasing number of competitors entering an international market, a product's favorable country image begins to lose its strategic importance. Consequently, the pursuit of first-mover advantage may be more relevant than a positive country-of-origin effect. Also, the results suggest that for products from countries with a less than favorable image, it may be more useful to be a "follower'' than a "first-mover'' because the advantage of being first in a market can be negated by the unfavorable country-of-origin effect.
This research hypothesizes and tests the following propositions: (1) competitive performance of a brand varies across retail chains, driven by differences in retailers' promotion decisions for the brand, and (2) type, timing, frequency, and magnitude of retail promotions affects brands' competitive performance. Further, we illustrate the presence of asymmetry in brand competition and test the expectation that differences in market shares and price levels are major factors contributing to competitive asymmetry. A model of brand competition is formulated at the retail level. The results indicate that the competitive performance of brands are not uniform across pairs of brands and the retail chains in a market.
Many firms are turning from discrete, arms-length, adversarial exchanges with a multitude of marketing research suppliers toward long-term, collaborative relationships with a smaller number of “partners.” Advocates of partnering believe that it is a way to reduce total costs and improve quality, while dissenting
firms believe partnering can breed complacency. This article presents the results of a study that examines performance outcomes (product quality, service quality, cost efficiency, timeliness, and overall customer satisfaction) and the degree to which a client partners with its marketing research firms. Results indicate a relationship between partnering and increased
performance in all five areas. Implications for managers include the possibility of better performance from research firms if the relationship is more collaborative in nature.
As countries in eastern Europe embrace the free market system, there is an increasing need to assess the applicability of established marketing instruments in those emerging markcts. This study focuses on a scale that measures children's attitudes toward television commercials and investigates the internal consistency of the scale (a key reliability check) among the children of Latvia. As such, it is the first reliability test of thc scale on a foreign child-segment. Results of the study are compared to findings of reliability tests done among children in the U.S. It is seen that the internal consistency reliability of the scale among Latvian children compares favorably with that reported among children in the U.S.
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