Research ArticlesProfessor Anand Nandkumar, Professor Shantanu Dutta, and Nimay Srinivasan. " Change In Patent Regime And The Role of Branded And Generic Drugs On Price And Quantity: Evidence From The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry 1995-2009", 2017Read Abstract >Close >In order to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) charter of the World Trade Organization, India strengthened its patent regime and re-introduced product patents in the agricultural, chemical and pharmaceutical sectors, in 2005. Until the reintroduction of product patents, the Indian pharmaceutical industry comprised mostly of generic drug manufacturers who manufactured and distributed copies of original pharmaceutical drugs manufactured and distributed by branded drug manufacturers (Chaudhuri, Goldberg, and Jia, 2006). Given the relatively lower cost of R&D, branded generics were available to the consumers at a fraction of the cost of the original branded drug. The reintroduction of product patents in India has been heavily debated with its effects on prices of drugs being the main focal point. There has been very little discussion of its effects on quality or how the reintroduction of product patents will impact entry in the industry.
This study aims to partially fill this gap by examining the effects of the re-introduction of product patents in India on the nature of entry and the quality of products in a market and how they in turn roll up the effects on prices and quantity consumed in a market. Using the Indian pharmaceutical industry, and the recently implemented patent reforms in India mandated by TRIPS, which represents an exogenous event, we put together a data set that allows us to assess the role of the strength of patents on product quality and the nature of entry in a market.
Research ArticlesRishtee Batra.,Tanuka Ghosha. "Self-Worth Restoration through High Intensity Sensory Consumption: An Arousal-Regulation Explanation", 2016Read Abstract >Close >We propose that consumption of high intensity sensory stimuli can be used as a means of selfworth restoration after individuals experience psychological threat. Specifically, we find that if a consumer’s sense of self-worth is threatened, they seek to indulge in high intensity consumption in different sensory domains to buffer against their feelings of inadequacy. We propose that regulation of arousal levels, known to be a key factor in individuals’ response to survival threats and mood regulation, is the motivator for high intensity sensory consumption. In three studies we find that individuals under self-threat show a propensity towards sensory stimuli of higher intensity (brighter, more saturated hues of color and louder levels of music). We find that engaging in a self-affirmation exercise negates this propensity towards high intensity sensory consumption, pointing toward the fact that high intensity sensory consumption itself serves a restorative purpose. In our final study we show that when individuals are subjugated to selfthreat, their feelings of self-worth are higher following high intense sensory consumption, and that changes in arousal levels mediate this process.
Research ArticlesAmit Bubna.,Sisir Debnath. "Effect of Mobile Phones on Rural Economy", 2016Read Abstract >Close >Mobile telephony has witnessed unprecedented growth since the beginning of the twenty-first century. Mobile subscriptions in two of the largest countries in particular, India and China, are poised to converge to that of the developed world. This unparalleled catch-up, particularly for India with a meagre 1.3 telephones per 100 population in 1996, is probably one of a kind technology adoption. This is in stark contrast to concerns about the “digital divide” when information and communications technology (ICT) tools such as computers and the internet were introduced. The causal effect of rapid changes in mobile telephony on economic outcomes is poorly understood. Its proliferation is argued to be largely demand driven and therefore endogenous to various confounding factors.
Research ArticlesProfessor Snehal Awate. "The expanding geography of emerging-industry innovation networks: the case of wind turbines", 2016Read Abstract >Close >We study the entry of locations into emerging industry innovation networks. Our approach encompasses simultaneously three dimensions of innovation: technology, geography, and people. We hypothesize that both the number of active technologies in a location (innovation breadth) as well as the extent of specialization in these technologies (innovation depth) have negative curvilinear effects on the location’s degree centrality in an industry’s global innovation network. However, innovation breadth has a larger impact than depth. Further, we show that emergent innovative locations are more likely to increase innovation breadth in the industry’s technologies than innovation depth. This suggests that emergent locations in emerging industries may exhibit a faster movement towards centrality in the global innovation network than established innovative locations. The result shows that the forces of geographic dispersal observed in the emerging stages of industries may be much stronger in today’s knowledge economy.