Research Trends

  1. Under the Fifteenth Finance Commission Project:
     
- > Progressive elimination of revenue deficit keeps the state governments consistent with fiscal sustainability. The figure shows the performance of the government of Punjab vis-à-vis the FRBM target for revenue deficit (2012-13 to 2016-17). The shaded area depicts the gap between FRBM targets and the actuals. There is observed convergence in the performance of the government of Punjab vis-à-vis the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) target for the year 2016-17; although the State was not able to reach close to the assigned targets in the previous years.


Source: CAG State Finances Reports (2012-2017)
 
-> Disregarding the fiscal prudence norms, the State of Punjab has not been able to reach close to the assigned targets of Fiscal Deficit. In the year 2016-17, the Fiscal Deficit went abnormally high to (-)11.02 as against the FRBM Fiscal Deficit target of (-)3.0, this is excluding the additional borrowings of Rs. 57.69 Billion under UDAY scheme. If this amount is included, then it will drive Fiscal Deficit to a new high. This explains the widening gap between the receipts and the expenditure of the government.
Source: CAG State Finances Reports (2012-2017)
 
-> A low value of outstanding debt to GSDP Ratio indicates that the state economy is vibrant to pay back debts without incurring further debt. The figure depicts the total outstanding debt relative to GSDP with respect to FRBM and budget targets. During 2011-12 to 2015-16, the government of Punjab successfully maintained the ratio of total outstanding debt to GSDP within the prescribed limit. However, post 2015-16, a very high value of 42.72% as against the FRBM target of 31.49%; reflects the imbalance in the fiscal prudence of the state. This can be majorly attributed to UDAY loan and Cash Credit Limit accounts. The increasing debt GSDP ratio may increase the possibility of the state falling into a debt trap.
Source: CAG State Finances Reports (2012-2017)

2. Under the Doubling Farmers' Incomes Project:
 
-> The data presents price fluctuations for apples from Himachal Pradesh in the FY 2018. Apple other than being a cash crop, is also important cultivable crop of the region. As many farmers in the area are engaged in cultivation of apple. This data from www.agrmarknet.gov.in represents how the wholesale prices of apple has changed over the time in FY 2018.


 

 

-> The data presented is from www.agmarknet.gov.in, for Jharkhand State and commodity tomato. According to the data, the prices of tomato rose maximum in August and especially in the markets of Khunti and Gumla. As per the data the maximum modal price was approximately 15,000 rupees per quintal, which in general trends used to be 3,000-4,000 rupees per quintal.




 
-> The data of agricultural markets was collected from the financial year 2013 to FY 2018. According to this data, all the markets which have reported even once in the tiome frame have been considered function. As a result of this, the gap between the blue bars and the bold black line shows the number of registered markets that don’t report data. With Bihar being one of the states which have highest number of non-reporting markets.

 


-> The black dots indicate the location of various fruits and vegetable markets in India while various shades of blue indicate irrigated land as per the label. One can easily observe areas with high market activity also having large areas of irrigated land.  

-> The brown dots indicate the location of various fruits and vegetable markets in India. One can easily observe epicentres of high market activity. 

 

 
-> Image shows price variation in paddy in Punjab for 2018.
 

-> Map showing the contribution of various states towards production of oranges.
 

-> Image shows the commodities traded in a high income market - The Ravulapelem Market, which majorly trades in bananas. 
 

3. Under the Quality of Education in Punjab Project:
 
-> The data is for 2018-19 and it represents performance of students in Punjab in government managed schools across different districts. Individual performance data is aggregated (median scores) at district level for mathematics and english scores for classes 5th and 8th.  

 

 
 
The data depicted shows ranks of all the districts in Punjab based on their share of students in class 5th performing better than median performance (72.5/100) in maths across all districts. Ferozpur, Fazilka and Roopnagar are the top three schools whereas Amritsar, Bhatinda and Tarn Taran are the worst ranking districts in mathematics for class 5th. The median performance (68.13/100) in english across all districts is 68.13/100. SBS nagar, Fazilka and Ferozpur are the top three schools whereas Amritsar, Bhatinda and Tarn Taran are the worst ranking districts in mathematics for class 5th

-> The data depicted shows ranks of all the districts in Punjab based on their share of students in class 8th performing better than median performance (53.75/100) in mathematics across all districts. Gurdaspur, Faridkot and Hoshiarpur are the top three schools whereas Bhatinda Moga and Barnala are the worst ranking districts in mathematics for class 8th.  SAS Nagar, SBS Nagar and Roopnagar are the top three schools whereas Bhatinda Moga and Tarn Taran are the worst ranking districts in English for class 8th