Impact Assessment of Udyam Abhilasha (UA): Entrepreneurship Awareness Campaign

The Government of India’s National eGovernance Plan (NeGP), since 2006, identifies Common Service Centres (CSCs) as the key access points for delivery of various e-governance and business services to citizens in rural and far-flung areas of the country. CSCs offer assisted access to eservices with a focus on enhancing governance, delivering essential government and public utility services, social welfare schemes, financial services, education and skill development programs, health and agriculture services and digital literacy with a host of partnerships and programs.

The major aim of the Udyam Abhilasha project is to make the rural youth understand the concept of entrepreneurship and to empower the communities with enhanced aspirations and preparedness towards realizing newer business opportunities for livelihood. Leveraging the network of Village Level Entrepreneurs (VLEs) operating within CSC 2.0 scheme to act of Master Trainers (MTs), Udyam Abhilasha project (launched on Gandhi Jayanthi, Oct 2nd, 2018) was rolled out in 115 Aspirational districts from 3 rd – 7 th October 2018. Around 18,000 rural Indians participated in a baseline survey (pre-participation) and approximately 14,000 of them completed a post-assessment survey. In this context, aligned with goals of the Udyam Abhilasha project and both the individual and collective missions of CSC and SIDBI, our impact assessment study is focused on reaching the following study objectives.
Our study specifically captures the longitudinal impact of the Udyam Abhilasha project (9 months post the training roll out) Impact Assessment Report of Udyam Abhilasha Project 7
1. What are the impacts of the Udyam Abhilasha project on citizens across 115 districts? i. Citizens’ knowledge and awareness towards entrepreneurship not limited to access to financial capital, role of marketing for business, etc. ii. Shifts (if any) on citizens’ employment status, efforts, aspirations, challenges and needs for seeking newer business opportunities
2. Develop recommendations for long-term effectiveness of Udyam Abhilasha project: i. Potential revisions to training curriculum for both citizens and VLEs/MTs ii. Continue the sustained engagement with participants to provide long-term handholding support and further their entrepreneurial journeys

Impact Assessment of Common Service Centres 2.0 Scheme
Research Partner- CSC e-Governance Services
The Government of India’s National eGovernance Plan (NeGP), since 2006, identifies Common Service Centres (CSCs) as the key access points for delivery of various e-governance and business services to citizens in rural and far-flung areas of the country. We conducted an impact assessment of the CSC e-governance Services scheme on rural communities collecting data from 1000+ Village Level Entrepreneurs (VLEs) and 5000+ citizens. The evaluation spanned CSCs across 10 Indian states in the four regions in the country and comprised of analysis of archival VLE performance data, surveys and qualitative interviews to assess the impact as manifest in the financial viability and social impact of CSCs. Our results emphasise three significant findings:
  • We find that entrepreneurial traits, notably, achievement motivation, social orientation and belief in self significantly impact the performance of the VLE. Furthermore, we show that the intrinsic traits also determine these strategies chosen by the VLEs to drive the CSC operations and thereby the impact on the local communities
  • The entrepreneur’s perception of her environment influences her achievement motivation and social orientation. These perceptions also systematically vary across states
  • We study the effect of VLE strategies, including service mix, training provided to employees, funding model, hours of operation and marketing, and find it to impact sales performance.
  • Entrepreneurial traits determine the strategies employed by the entrepreneur’s achievement motivation positively impacts marketing investments; while social orientation and self-belief have a negative effect.

 
Impact Assessment of Digital and Entrepreneurial Literacy Trainings
Research Partner- CSC e-Governance Services
India is seeing a proliferation of expanded infrastructure, access to the Internet and the push towards e-governance / e-commerce even in the remotest areas of the country. Prior research has largely focused on the role played by physical infrastructure in enhancing the information capacity of citizens and thereby bridging the digital divide. However, the role of investments in social infrastructure / human capital development in bridging the digital divide is less investigated.
While there are numerous pockets of small-scale initiatives that invest in ICT-enabled education, there is limited evidence in the effectiveness of such interventions or significant policy imperative, given the magnitude of the digital divide in India.
In partnership with Government of India, CSC e-Governance Services and their skill-development arm CSC Academy, SRITNE aims to leverage the large-scale 2,50,000 plus Village Level Entrepreneurs (VLEs) network across India for imparting two key training programmes focusing on:
  • Digital Literacy
  • Entrepreneurial Literacy
As part of the study, the researchers will rigorously assess the effects of these two large-scale and distinct training interventions on citizen demographics (age, gender, education, location, occupation, income, etc.) and evaluate the tangible and intangible costs and benefits.
The study used performance data, surveys, and qualitative interviews to assess the impact as manifest in the financial viability and social impact of CSCs.
Our results emphasise three significant findings:
  • We find that entrepreneurial traits, notably, achievement motivation, social orientation and belief in self significantly impact the performance of the VLE. Furthermore, we show that the intrinsic traits also determine these strategies chosen by the VLEs to drive the CSC operations and consequently the impact on the local communities.
  • The entrepreneur’s perception of her environment influences her achievement motivation and social orientation. These perceptions also systematically vary across states.

Impacts of Technology on Teaching and Learning Efficacy in Telangana Schools
Research Partner- Government of Telangana
An increasing number of governments in emerging markets are implementing technology solutions in schools aimed at improving teaching effectiveness and student learning outcomes. However, there is insufficient evidence that providing access to these technologies, including computers, the Internet, educational applications/e-books, has a significant effect on student performance. 
 
The Government of Telangana launched an initiative called Telangana State Computer Literacy and Skills in Schools (TS-CLASS) to promote digitisation of education in government high schools. Researchers at SRITNE, through detailed qualitative interviews and surveys of students, teachers and administrators at over 100 government schools, are seeking to provide insights into the impact of digitisation of education, heterogeneity in such impact and the mechanisms underlying impact. Specifically, the study will:
1. Understand the differential motivations and beliefs of students and teachers regarding various technology tools in the classroom 
2. Document patterns of adoption of digital tools across schools and amongst teachers and students within schools
3. Evaluate the impact of technology adoption and the drivers of such impact