Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is a coordinated program that optimizes the use of antimicrobials (including antibiotics), promotes behavior change in antimicrobial prescribing and dispensing practices, improves the quality of care and patient outcomes, and builds the best-practices capacity of healthcare professionals regarding the rational use of antimicrobials. The aim of an AMS program is often achieved by reducing overall antimicrobial consumption and perhaps reducing the overall usage of specific (broad-spectrum) antimicrobials.

In this study, we intend to:
- Understand the antimicrobial prescribing and dispensing practices in health facilities and outline barriers and enablers to promote behavior change in these practices.
- Outline interventions including behavioral nudges to improve antimicrobial prescribing and dispensing behavior.


A mixed-methods study in two phases:
Phase 1: Understand
AMS interventions can be implemented in all types of healthcare facilities. Effective implementation requires understanding the local context. Methodology includes Secondary research, expert interviews, and both Qualitative and Quantitative data analysis. A situational analysis using primary quantitative and qualitative data to understand the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats at various levels in the facility and highlight the possible barriers and enablers to promote behavior change in the antimicrobial prescribing and dispensing practices.

Phase 2: Plan
Design interventions (Who, What, Where, When and How) for behavioral change in antimicrobial prescribing and dispensing behavior with SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound) goals for change in antimicrobial use.


This methodology will enable an understanding of the dynamics of AMS by focusing on three key aspects.

1. Current practices of private providers for AMS.
2. Understanding process measures/indicators of antimicrobial use.
3. Design interventions (who, what, where, when and how) for behavioral change with SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time-bound) goals for change in antimicrobial use.

Project Team

Professor Sarang Deo

Principal Investigator

Ashish Sachdeva

Co-Principal Investigator

Deepali Verma


Samayita Ghosh








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